Sayings of the Scholars- { Allaah Exists without a Place or Direction }

——–Qur’an:

[Allah has attributes that do not resemble the attributes of others.] Surat an-Nahl, Verse 60.

[Do not attribute to Allah the attributes of His creation.] Surat an-Nahl, Verse 74.

[Do you know of anything which is similar to Him? There is none.] Surat Maryam, Verse 65.

[Nothing is like Allah in any way ] Surat ash-Shura, Verse 11.

[There is nothing which is equal to Him.] Surat al-Ikhlas, Verse 4.

 

———-Sunnah:

The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said:

Allah which means that His Existence is definite and further confirmed by proofs and logic) and there is

nothing above You, and You are ai-Batin (ai-Batin is a name of Allah which means that the reality of Allah

is not conceivable in the mind) and there is nothing beneath You >>.

In his book ‘al-Asma’ was-Sifat’ (The Names and Attributes of Allah) the Imam and Hafidh, Ahmad Ibn al-Husayn al-Bayhagiyy (died

 

458 AH) said: “Some of our companions used the saying of the Prophet:

 

You are ai-Batin and there is nothing beneath You >> as evidence to refute the allocation of the concept of place to All~h, they

 

concluded that since there is nothing above Him and nothing beneath Him, therefore, He exists without a place”.

 

The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, also said: >. In his book “al-

 

l^tiqad” (The Creed) Imam al-Bayhagiyy said when elucidating the meaning of this Hadth: “This indicates that eternally nothing

 

existed other than Allah; no water, no ^Arsh (The Throne) and no other creation, they are all classified as other than Allah”.

 

———-Scholars of the 1st Century:

lmam ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib (died 40 AH) may Allah raise his rank, the eminent and renowned companion and one of the most

 

distinguished in teaching Tawhid (Islamic Creed) said: “Allah is eternally existent and place is not, and He still exists as He

 

eternally was (i.e. without a place)”. Narrated by Abu Mansur al-Baghdadiyy in his book ‘al-Farqu baynal-Firaq’.

 

In his book ‘as-Sahifah as-Sajjadiyyah’ lmam Zaynul-Aabidin ^Aliyy lbnul-Hussayn (died 94 AH) may Allah raise his rank, a great

 

successor of the companions (Tabi^iyy) said: “You are Allah, the One who is not confined to place”.

 

———-Scholars of the 2nd Century:

Imam Ja^far as-Sadiq (died 148 AH), may Allah raise his rank, said: “He who claims that Allah is in anything or on anything or

 

from anything commits shirk (type of blasphemy). Because, had He been on anything, He would have been carried, had He been in

 

anything, He would have been contained, and had He been from anything, He would have been a creation”. Narrated by Imam al-

 

Qushayriyy in his book ‘ar-Risalah al-Qushayriyyah’.

 

In his book ‘Al-Fiqhuli-‘Absat’ the great Imam and Mujtahid Abu Hanifah an-Nu^man Ibn Thabit (died 150 AH), may Allah raise his

 

rank, said: “Alah is eternally existent and eternally place did not exist. Allah eternally exists before creating the creation.

 

Allah eternally exists and eternally there was no place or any other creation and He is the Creator of everything”.

 

———-Scholars of the 3rd Century:

The great Imam and Mujtahid Muhammad Ibn ldris Ash-Shafi^iyy (died 204 AH), may Allah raise his rank, said: “Allah, the Exalted

 

is eternally existent and eternally, place did not exist. Allah created the place while He is still attributed with Eternity as

 

He was before creating the place. It is intellectually impossible for change to occur in His Self or for alteration to happen in

 

His Attributes”. Related by Imam az-Zabidiyy in his book ‘lthaf as-Sadatil-Muttaqin’.

 

“lmam Ahmad Ibn Hambal (died 241 AH) never attributed directionality to Allah.” Related by Imam Ibn Al-Jawziyy in his book ‘Daf^

 

Shubhatit-Tashbih’.

 

———-Scholars of the 4th Century:

In his book ‘al-^Aqidah at-Tahawiyyah’ the great Faqih and Imam Abu Ja^far at-Tahawiyy (born 237 AH, died 321 AH) said: “Allah is

 

utterly clear of all boundaries, extremes, sides, organs, and instruments. The six directions do not contain Him, as they contain

 

all created things”.

 

In his well-known book ‘Sahih Ibn Hibban’ Al-Hafidh Muhammad

Ibn Hibban (died 354 AH) said: “Allah is eternally existent and

eternally no time or place did exist”.

 

———-Scholars of the 5th Century:

In his book ‘Mushkilul-Hadith’ Imam Abu Bakr Muhammad ibnul-Huussayn, also known as Ibn Furak (died 406 AH) said: “It is

 

intellectually impossible for Allah, the Exalted, to occupy places, by reason of the impossibility of limits and ends applying to

 

Him which is in turn due to the impossibility that Allah is created”.

 

In his book ‘Al-Isharah ila madhhab ahlil-Haqq’ (The Guide to the methodology of the People of Truth) Imam and Faqih Abu Ishaq

 

ash-Shiraziyy (died 476 AH), a great Shafi^iyy scholar said: “Allah is eternally existent and eternally place did not exist.

 

Allah created the place, and He is still existent as He eternally was (i.e. without a place)”.

 

———-Scholars of the 6th Century:

In his book ‘Qawa^idul-^Aqa’id’ Shaykh Adu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazaliyy (died 505 AH) a great Shafi^iyy scholar said:

 

“Allah, the Exalted, is clear from containment by place and is clear from restriction by time. Rather, He is eternally existent

 

before creating time and place, and He is still existent as He eternally was (i.e. without a place)”.

 

In his book ‘al-Qabas fi sharh Muwatta’ Malik Ibn Anas’ Al-Qadi (The Judge) Abu Bakr ibn al-^Arabiyy (died 543 AH) a great

 

Malikiyy scholar from Andalusia (presently known as Spain) said: “Allah, Who is ‘Al-Bari’ (The Creator) is clear from the

 

limitation of the six directions or the envelopment of places”.

 

———-Scholars of the 7th Century:

In his book authored on interpreting the Qur’an known as ‘At-Tafsirul-Kabir’ lmam Fakhrud-Din ar-Raziyy (died 606 AH), said:

 

“Regarding the Ayah: { وهو العلي العظيم } it is impossible for the meaning of the word ‘^Aiiyy’, when attributed to Allah, to refer to

 

aboveness in terms of an upward direction or place, as evidence confirms the fallacy therein. Hence, this mandates that the

 

meaning of the word ‘^Aiiyy’ is that Allah is clear of resembling all intellectual possibilities and of any similarity to the

 

creation”.

 

In his book ‘Mulhatul-I^tiqad’ Shaykh ^lzzud-Din ibn ^Abdis-Salam (died 660 AH) said in reference to Allah: “Allah is not a body

 

and thus Has no form, He is not an entity and thus Has no measured limits. He does not resemble anything and nothing resembles

 

Him. The six directions do not surround Him, nor do the earths and skies enclose Him. He is eternally existent before creating

 

the creations. He created time, and He still exists as He eternally was (i.e. without a place}”.

 

———-Scholars of the 8th Century:

In his book ‘ldahud-Dalil’ Al-Qadi Badrud-Din Muhammad ibn Ibrahim known as Ibn Jama^ah ash-Shafi^iyy (died 733 AH) said: “Allah

 

is eternally existent and eternally no time or place did exist. He still exists as He eternally was (i.e. without the need for

 

place or time)”.

 

In his book ‘al-Bahrul-Muhit’ explaining verse 19 of Surat al-Anbiya’ the great linguist and interpreter and reciter of the Holy

 

Qur’an, Muhammad Ibn Yusuf known as Abu Hayyan al-Andalusiyy (died 745 AH) said: “The word ‘^inda’ in this Ayah does not have the

 

function of an adverb of place because Allah is clear of occupying places. Rather, it is used in the context of honourable status

 

and high standing”.

 

———-Scholars of the 9th Century:

In his book ‘Tarhut-Tathrib fi Sharhit-Taqrib’ when explaining the saying of the Prophet: > in reference to the

 

Book positioned above the Throne which has the following words: ‘lnna Rahmati sabaqat Ghadabi’, which means that the matters

 

Allah approves of, far exceed in number those He does not, the Hafidh and Muhaddith Waliyyud-Din Abu Zur^ah Ahmad ibn ^Abdir-

 

Rahim al-^Iraqiyy (died 826 AH) said: “Allah is clear from the acts of sitting, occupying space and directionality. Therefore,

 

the word ‘^inda’ in the aforementioned context does not infer place, rather, it infers honourable status. Consequently, the true

 

meaning of the Prophet’s saying is that this book is positioned in a place Allah awarded high status and honour”.

 

In his book ‘Fathul-Bari’ the great Hafidh Ibn Hajr al-^Asqalaniyy, the well-known Shafi^iyy scholar (died 852 AH) said:

 

“Although it is impossible for the upward and downward directions to apply to Allah, it does not entail He cannot be attributed

 

with ‘Al-^Uluww’ {Aboveness in a metaphorical sense}. This is so because attributing Him with ‘Al-^Uluww’ {Aboveness} is from the

 

point of status, which is impossibly applicable in a physical sense when in reference to Allah. Hence, it has been related that

 

among the names of Allah are Al-^Ali, Al-^Aliyy, and Al-Muta^ali”.

 

———-Scholars of the 10th Century:

In his book ‘Al-‘Iklil fis-tinbatit-Tanzil’ Al-Hafidh Jalalud-Din ^Abdur-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr As-Suyutiyy Ashafi^iyy (died 911 AH)

 

said: “The Ayah: [ ليس كمثله شيء] holds within it a refutation to the creed of the Mushabbihah (those who liken Allah to the creation)

 

and a confirmation that He (Allah) is not a mass, a body, a colour, a taste, and that He does not occupy a space or conform to

 

time”.

 

In his book ‘Irshad as-Sari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhariyy’ Shaykh Abul-^Abbas

Shihabud-Din Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Qastalaniyy ai-Misriyy (died 923

AH) said: “The Self of Allah is clear from the notions of place and direction”.

 

———-Scholars of the 11th Century:

In his book ‘Ar-Rawdul-Azhar fi Sharhil-Fiqhil-Akbar’ Shaykh Mulla ^Aliyy al-Qari

(died 1014 AH ), the well-known Hanafiyy scholar said: “The ‘^Uluww’ of Allah over

His creation embedded in the meaning of verse 61 of Surat al-An^am is indeed an

aboveness in status and domination, as mandated by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama^ah

and not a physical aboveness”.

 

In his book ‘Al-Futuhat ar-Rabbaniyyah’ Al-Muhaddith ash-Shaykh Muhammad Ibn ^Aiiyy known as Ibn ^Allan as-Siddiqiyy ash-

 

Shafi^iyy (died 1057 AH) said: “Indeed Allah is above His creation in status and domination, and not in place and direction”.

 

———-Scholars of the 12th Century:

In his elucidation to the book ‘Muwatta’ of lmam Malik’ Shaykh Muhammad ibn

^Abdil-Baqi az-Zarqaniyy (died 1122 AH) a well-known Malikiyy scholar said:

“lmam al-Baydawiyy said: “Since it is confirmed through irrefutable proofs that

Allah is clear from notions of body and dwelling, it follows that it is impossible

that Allah would be moving from one place to another lower place”.”

 

In his well-known poem called ‘Kifayatul-Ghulam’ Shaykh ^Abdul-Ghaniyy an-Nabulusiyy (died 1143 AH), a great Sufi Hanafiyy

 

scholar from Damascus, Syria said:

“Contained not He (Allah) is by place, certainly not, nor His reality can be grasped

by the minds, He is in status above all the creations and is clear of all their characteristics”.

 

———-Scholars of the 13th Century:

In his well-known poem called ‘al-Kharidah al-Bahiyyah’ relating to the attributes

of Allah, the great Malikiyy Scholar, Shaykh Abul-Barakat Ahmad ibn

Muhammad ad-Dardir (died 1201 AH) from Egypt said: “Allah is clear from

occupancy, directionality, attachment, detachment and recklessness”.

 

in his book ‘Sharhul-^Aqidah at-Tahawiyyah’ (The explanation of at-Tahawiyyah) Shaykh ^Abdul-Ghaniyy al-Ghunaymiyy al-Maydaniyy

 

(died 1298 AH), a great Hanafiyy scholar from Damascus, Syria said: “Allah, the Exalted, is not a body, therefore to see Allah is

 

different than to see the created bodies. Any seeing must be in accordance with the attributes of what is seen. Therefore, the

 

creation which is in a certain place and direction cannot be seen except in that place and direction as part of its attributes.

 

Furthermore, seeing a creation involves reciprocal proximity, connective optical beams

and a set distance. However, seeing Allah, the One Who does not exist in a place or a direction and is not a bodily entity is

 

just as well, without Him existing in a place or in a set direction”.

 

———-Scholars of the 14th Century:

In his book ‘Ta’iyyatus-Suluk’ Shaykh ^Abdul-Majid ash-Sharnubiyy al-Azhariyy

(died 1348 AH) said: “Allah, the Exalted is not subject to time limitations nor is

carried over a certain place. In reality, He is eternally existent and eternally no

place or time did exist, and now He exists as He eternally was (i.e. without being

subject to place and time)”.

 

In his book ‘Furqan al-Qur’an’ Shaykh Salamah al-Qurda^iyy al-^Azzamiyy (died 1376

AH), a great Shafi^iyy scholar said: “The truthful righteous Salaf (Scholars who lived in the first three centuries after the

 

Prophetic Migration) and Khalaf (Scholars who lived after Salaf) unanimously agree to clear al-Haqq (a name of Allah which means:

 

The One Whose Existence is beyond doubt) the Exalted, from existing in any direction or place”.

 

———-Scholars of the 15th Century:

In his book ‘al-Ayatul-Muhkamat’ Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ahmad known as ad-Dah

ash-Shanqitiyy (died 1404 AH), former Imam of al-Khatmiyyah Mosque in Sudan

said: “The scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama^ah have all unanimously agreed

that Allah does not need anything and that everything is in need of Him. He exists

deservedly without the need to an allocator or place. He created time and place,

and He still exists as He eternally was”.

 

In his book ‘ldhharul-^Aqidah as-Sunniyyah’ (The Elucidation of the Sunniyy

Creed) Shaykh and Muhaddith ^Abdullah al-Harariyy (died 1429 AH) known

as al-Habashiyy said: “The righteous people of knowledge have stated that

Allah is not firmly affixed in any place meaning that it is intellectually impossible for Allah to become in contact with a particular place and rest over it.”